The term "yoga" is applied to an assortment of practices and strategies that also embrace Hindu, Jain and Buddhist practices. In Hinduism these practices include Jnana Yoga, Bhakti Yoga, Laya Yoga and Hatha Yoga.
Yoga Sutras of Pantajali, which are the oldest identified written compilation about yoga, embody the Raja Yoga or the Ashtanga Yoga, (the eight limbs to be practiced to realize Samadhello). The ultimate purpose of the yoga follow is to obtain Samadhello or unity of the individual self with the Supreme Being. Patanjali states that one can achieve this supreme union by elimination the 'vruttis' or the completely different modifications of the mind. The mind can in flip be controlled by right discipline and training of the body. The Yoga-Sutra of Patanjali comprise of:
Yama: Social restraints or ethical values for living. They embody: Ahimsa (Non-violence), Satya (truthfulness) Asteya (non-stealing), Brahmacharya (celibacy, constancy to at least one's partner) and Aparigraha (non-possessiveness).
Niyama - They embody the personal observances of - Sauca (readability of mind, speech and body), Santosha (contentment), Tapas (perseverance). Svadhyaya (examine of self, self-reflection, research of Vedas), and Ishvara-Pranidhana (contemplation of God/Supreme Being/True Self)
Asana: Actually means "seat", and in Patanjali's Sutras refers to the seated position used for meditation.
Pranayama -Prana, breath, "ayama", to restrain or stop i.e., regulation of breath
Pratyahara - Withdrawal of the sense in preparation to meditation.
Dharana - Focus
Dhyana - Meditation.
Samadhi - Liberating one's body to achieve ecstasy.
Moreover, Patanjali has recognized some basic obstacles that don't allow the thoughts from working towards yoga. He has divided them into 2 classes:
Antarayas (intruders within the path of yoga)
Viksepasahabhuvah (co-present with psychological distraction)
There are 9 Antarayas:
Vyadhi (physical illness) - If a body is suffering from some illness, it must be cured and restored to a healthy state. Illness causes dysfunction of the thoughts and makes it troublesome to follow yoga or another type of bodily self-discipline
Styana (psychological laziness) - The human desire to reap the fruits of action with none effort will not be conducive to psychological health. Strong will power needs to be employed to do away with this ailment.
Samshaya (doubt) - Religion is the one cure to dispel all arising doubts.
Pramada (heedlessness) - If one is oblivious to domesticate virtues, Yoga cannot be practiced.
Alasya (bodily laziness) - Involving in wholesome actions helps overcome this laziness
Avirati (detachment) - The thoughts needs to be detached from material objects to attain Yoga
Bhrantidarsana (false notion) - leads to self-conceit and must be saved away.
Alabdha- bhumikatva (non-attainment of yogic states) - Recognizing the evil traits in our personality and banishing them would help in the long run
Anavasthitatva (falling away from yogic states attained)
There what are the different types of yoga
Dukha - sorrow and struggling inflicting the human mind.
Daurmanasya - disappointment as a result of non-achievement of wishes and ambition.
Angamejayatva - relaxationlessness of the limbs due to mental agitation.
Shvasa and prashvasa - pressured inhalation and exhalation. Managed breathing or a balance in respiratory exerts a chilled affect within the mind.
Patanjali states that these impediments might be eliminated through meditation and devotion to God; which will pave the best way for self-realization.
Yoga Vashishta is meant to have been disclosed by the Vedic sage, Vashishta to his royal disciple Lord Rama, who is said to be a reincarnation of Lord Vishnu. Yoga Vashishta includes of 32000 shlokas. In this scripture, sage Vashishta explains the teachings of Vedanta in form of tales to Lord Rama. He teaches him in regards to the misleading nature of the world, teaches him the most effective means to attain wisdom and happiness thus showing him the path leading to the supreme spirit.
Kundalini Yoga (Laya Yoga):
This form of yoga was first launched in The Yoga- Kundalini Upanishad within the first half of 17th century. Kundalini yoga is the yoga of consciousness. Kundalini is primal energy or Shakti, which lies dormant and is coiled at the base of the backbone like a serpent. It's the energy of consciousness and awareness in any human form. Kundalini yoga is supposed to awaken the sleeping Kundalini Shakti from its coiled place on the spinal base by means of a sequence of 6 chakras, and penetrate the seventh chakra, or the crown. The aim of this form of yoga by means of every day apply of kriyas and meditation in sadhana is claimed to be a practical technology of human consciousness to realize their final artistic potential. Working towards this Kundalini Yoga recurrently, leads one to be liberated from one's Karma and to realize their purpose in life (Dharma).